Wednesday, December 8, 2010

Invisible Children Research... One Day to be an Essay...


  • Many child soldiers all over the world. Uganda hardest hit. 30,000 abducted without a trace
  • Brought to attention when three college boys went to visit Uganda and revealed the reality of the people there.

  • War in Uganda 23 years between LRA and Government of Uganda
  • 2 million civilians caught in the middle
  • Gov't isnt strong like the US government. Try imagining this situation here. We are very lucky. If a child goes missing here National Guard media. When the abductor is caught=jail time
  • AIDS crisis has left many children without anyone to provide for them. They go missing and few notice= invisible children

  • 1980's Alice Lakwena believed a spirit spoke to her to overthrow the Ugandan government because they were unjust to the Acholi.
  • Strange beliefs. Go into war with sticks and stone and the holy water would protect you. HOLY SPIRIT MOVEMENT
  • many followers and group gained momentum
  • Lakwena was exiled (expulsion from land) and cousin Kony took over- LRA
  • Kony didn't receive the same support from the Acholi people
  • Dwindling approval → abduct children into the ranks
  • 90% ranks are children
  • 5-12 year olds
  • easiest to train- persuade. Teach the kids to kill and be very violent. Many girls who are abducted are raped and given as wives to commanders

  • 1996 Ugandan Government put people in overcrowded camps for protection – instead came poverty disease and starvation NO JOBS
  • Children were still being abducted = Night commuting to verandas 1000's of people

  • Conditions improving step by step
  • Night commuting ended- sleep ins in the US change being made from people like us. You can help change the world
  • Many peace talks
  • International attention → help
  • 2001- US Patriot Act declared he LRA a terrorist group
  • 2004- Ugandan Crisis Act – US to provide more aide to Uganda
  • 2005- ICC International Criminal Court put out an arrest warrant for Kony and top 4 commanders.

  • As things were improving things then started to slip. Dec 24 2008 LRA adducted 160+ and murdered 600 to show power
  • Also in 2008 Kony agreed to meet for a peace talk but then never showed up
  • People continue to live in fear
  • The progress already made is proof that we have the power to continue the fight to end this war and send kids home

Body Image

Dear Women of the USA,

I am enthralled to see you all independent and successful despite expectations of a male-dominated society. I am thankful for your strong-will and persistence to never settle for anything less. As a woman, I stand among all the morals and values you all hold dear. But I have a burning discontent within my heart. There are injustices and lies presented in society that distort the perceptions of reality.

Media is twisting the definition of real beauty. Photoshop, airbrush, miracle makeup, unrealistic diets and exercise are some of many ingredients of a picture perfect model. Women can never live up to any of it. From the moment we were born, we have been trained to live up to an expectation we can never achieve. If Barbie was a real woman she would have to walk on all fours due to her proportions. We must also watch out for our men. If GI-JO was a real man he would have larger biceps than any bodybuilder in history. And what about our children? Forty-six percent of nine to eleven year olds have admitted to experimenting with diets.

Every day we are presented with hundreds of images through TV, magazines, newspapers, bus stops, Internet, advertisements, you-name-it. It is bound to have an influence on us and our perceptions of the world. I challenge you to guard your heart. Know what is true about yourself. Every woman was created to be beautiful and to fulfill a purpose beyond what the world throws at us. Do not look for value and acceptance from the world. Don't look for it in magazines. Don't look for it in movies. They will only leave you feeling less than you we meant to be

I do not intend to say that diets and exercise are bad. These are one of the most healthy habits you can establish for yourself. Balanced meals and daily exercise has many benefits. It is only when these habits become an obsession, is it unhealthy. You cannot diet and exercise for the wrong reasons.

Do not choose to support the lies that media consumes us with. Be the change you want to see. Encourage others to believe that they are created how they should be. Encourage healthy habits, and eliminate obsessive habits. Bring awareness to the real beauty that the distortion of media has prevented us from seeing. I ask that you, women of the USA, redefine real beauty.

College Essay

The heart is one of the most complex organs in the human anatomy. It's sixty-thousand miles of vessels are so effective that it can push blood to the foot and back in ten seconds. And yet this organ becomes even more complex when society says, “Follow you heart.”

The perplexing statement provides insight to people of purely obedience. However, by the movement consisting of elements I define by what I consider radical, I have found it is more appropriate to “lead your heart.” Leading my heart doesn't confine me to to the limits of human instinct and rationality. An infinite amount of potential is available if one chooses to lead their heart. By leading my heart, I find that I do things that evolutionists would call “incorrect.” It has been proven that human instinct is survival. We can only reverse this by training to lead our heart. Leading my heart is the most important skill that I possess because it gives me the ability to positively manipulate any situation.

The capacity of leading your heart is much larger than that of “following your heart.” It means I put pride aside and be humble, it means I give to others before myself, it means I take risks that go outside my comfort zone, and lastly it means, I do what is good for the benefit of the situation, not the selfish desires and instincts of the heart.

It concerns me that some people may go their whole lives trying to "find themselves," when really it's all about creating yourself. Self-help books create a false illusion that one day identity will just be "found." I could wait around my whole life and see if this happens, but why do that when I can mold myself into the person I want to be, with the gifts I was given? My hope for an innovative, intellectual society is that people lead their heart and ultimately create themselves.

Wilson Essay

Edward O. Wilson Satirical Essay

Wilson addresses both sides of a controversial issue by generalizing the perspective of each group concerning conservation of the environment. Wilson's satirical language, juxtaposition, paradox, and irony convey the opposing attitudes about environmentalism. He does this to demonstrate that both arguments are unproductive and ultimately lead nowhere.

At first Wilson portrays the “People-First” critic's view on “Environmentalists.” Speaking from the place of a “People First” critic, he refers to the environmentalists as “wackos.” Wilson reveals that the “wackos” have a “mostly hidden agenda that comes from the left, usually far left.” The refers to the left movement which was especially seen in the Vietnam war when the youth started demanding sweeping, liberal changes in society. By emphasizing “far left,” Wilson is demonstrating that environmentalist go over-the-top, just as people did in the” New Left” movement during Vietnam. Wilson describes a hypothetical situation in which a college student will find and “endangered red spider on your property” and the “Endangered Species Act will shut you down.” This hyperbole immensely stretches the scene to emphasize the lengths to which environmentalist may go. The scene is also ironic because while most people think to kill a red spider, an environmentalist would endure any adversity to save it. Wilson describes environmentalists as potent and “conservation should be kept in perspective.” He then creates a paradox by saying property owners “are the real grass roots in this country.” This statement is paradoxical because the environmentalists are fighting against property owners to save land, when in reality, the property owners “know what's best for their land.”

Wilson then establishes the “Environmentalist” view on “People-First” critics. Speaking from this perspective he refers to the people-first critics as “anti-environmentalist,” “brown lashers,” and “sagebrush rebels.” Wilson creates a paradoxical statement saying “these people are the worst bunch of hypocrites you'll ever not want to know.” The strong opposition present in this statement reveals that it isn't worth the time to even know this group. He notes that “People-First” critic's of conservation is stocking trout streams and planting trees around golf courses.” This is ironic because these are also some of the goals of environmentalists. Although these actions may be limited, it is still practicing the general concept of conservation of the environment. The “People First” critics potentially put land development “├╝ber alles” (above all else). This satirical language portrays the environmentalists as the victims and their stories are never heard. This was most likely intended to poke fun at both groups to prove the unproductive nature of the issue. The argument ends with a rhetorical question, “What exactly are they trying to conserve? Their own selfish interests...” This statement, once again, is ironic because the “People-First” critics could say the same thing about them.

Both perspectives state many of the same problems concerning the issue. Ironically, they cannot see eye-to-eye because each perspective thinks that they are right. When compared, both groups discuss “power”, and “hidden agendas.” Environmentalists are depicted to “expand the government,” while People-First” critics have too much power because they are “tied so closely to the corporate power structure.” Both perspectives describe hidden agendas concerning important issues each side views has significant in society. Each view also describes the “left” and the “right” wing, emphasizing that both are too extreme either way. This juxtaposition identifies that both perspectives are more alike than they are willing to admit. There is no common middle ground despite the similarities. It is seen daily in the issue of exterminating prairie dogs or to keep them alive, to save the Poudre River, or to focus on other things.

Wilson closely identifies and establishes satirical, ironic, an juxtapositional aspects of the controversial topic of conservatism. He reveals these perspectives in a new light when contrast to each other in order to show that the issue is literally going nowhere. The opposing attitudes show the humor and satire presented in the issues and problems in society.

Mowbray Essay

Mowbray's Speech: Act 1 Scene 3
Lines 154-173

As Mowbray and Bullingbrook are about to fight after repeated acquisitions towards one another, an unexpected interupption occurs. After the trumpet sounds for them to begin the battle, King Richard II stops the fight before they even lay a sword on each other. He makes the decision to banish each of them from England. Bullingbrook is only banished for ten years or “till twice five summers” (1.3.141) while Mowbray is banished for life. Bullingbrook accepts his punishment with dignity and defiance. Mowbray's words are also dignified but are spoken in undeniable pain. He feels that Bullingbrook should also be harshly rewarded. This is apparent in his words, “a heavy sentence, my most sovereign liege, all unlooked-for from your highness' mouth.” It almost seems as if Mowbray subtly questions King Richard judgment.

Mowbray uses words and phrases such as “heavy,” “dull,”and “death,” to describe what this banishment feel like to him. He makes it apparent that the King's banishment “robs” him and “enjails” him. Mowbray is effective in his appeals to his audience to make them feel sympathy for him. Mowbray has two audiences, King Richard, and the people who came to watch the fight. He implies that he would like mercy from his King, and this speech, in a sense, is begging the King for a sentence like Bullingbrook's.
Mowbray describes the greatest pain of his banishment is he will no longer be able to speak in native tongue. He talks movingly of how his tongue will be like an “unstringed viol or a harp” or a “cunning instrument cased up.” Mowbray implies that in his banishment, important aspects of his life will ultimately die. He is not free, nor is his tongue free. He refers to his tongue as “within my mouth you have enjailed my tongue.” Without his native tongue his life becomes useless, and even like “death.” His hope becomes dim as he mentions that he is “too old” and “too far in years” to attain anything else in his lifetime.

Mowbray's attempt of gaining sympathy is effective. He portrays what his life will become in banishment. He feels the weight of his sentence with pain and outwardly demonstrates the certain “death” he experiences. However, his speech unexpectedly not effective enough. The next lines from King Richard show little empathy.

Momaday/Brown

Momaday/Brown:

Contrasting views are apparent as N.S. Momaday and D. Brown describe a similar landscape. This is evident in their use of diction, syntax, imagery, and tone. The authors ultimately convey diverging purposes resulting from the literary devices that they utilize. Momaday's passage reveals a high level of contentment and satisfaction of the land. Brown's composition shows the contrary, he sees the land as unsuitable and unsustainable.

Momaday immediately establishes a personal tone when he associates the landscape as “(his) people, the Kiowas.” He personifies the landscape as a “single knoll (that) rises out of the plain.” The word “rises,” ultimately brings the land to life, supporting his personal tone. Momaday describes the weather of the land to be the “hardest weather” in the world. He then continues to support his claim with words and phrases such as, “hot tornadic winds,” and “brittle” and “brown” grass. The words associated with heat and dryness create a vivid picture. This provides imagery to portray an intense landscape. Although he describes the weather and landscape as extreme, he seems to embrace the harsh climate. To Momaday, the plains are a home, and a comfort, despite it's harsh climate. This is evident because of his relaxed tone. As Momaday describes tortoises who live on the land, he says they are “going nowhere in plenty of time.” He asserts that in the land “there is no confusion.” This phrase implies that there is no confusion because of the simplicity of the land. This is significant as he continues to suggest that in the morning the land has the power to “lose sense of proportion.” The remarkable aspects of the land, to Momaday, have value.

Brown expresses frustration with the landscape in which “everything had turned bad.” He portrays a unpleasant and overwhelmed tone as he describes the land. Brown refers to the “whirlwind” grasshoppers and the “parched” grass. These words demonstrate the land is not suitable. He describes an “endless desolation of bones and skull.” This fulfills imagery associated with death. Brown establishes that the land is unideal because it cannot sustain life. Tribes “roamed restlessly” because the land has nothing to offer. The word “restlessly” suggests that the land has an uneasiness to it. Compared to Momaday's relaxed tone, Brown portrays and anxious landscape. The plains, to Brown, have no value.

Although both passages incorporate a general theme of “loneliness” and “desolation,” the landscape is interpreted with variance. Momaday embraces the solitude, while Brown despises it. The land offers nothing to Brown, nut a world of invitation to Momaday. These oppositions are conveyed through the literary devices of each of the authors. Diversity of diction of syntax greatly affect the purpose that the author intends to reveal. This is apparent in the distinctions that Momaday and Brown make of the same landscape.





Monday, November 15, 2010

Lincoln's Second Inagural Address

In Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address before the end of the civil war, he displays the affects of the civil war and then expresses his hope for the future. Lincoln strives for peace and unity of a torn nation. He achieves this purpose though his utilization of elemental rhetorical strategies.
Lincoln's honesty that is prevalent throughout the piece creates direct credibility to his audience. He ordains a humble perspective among his people. Lincoln connects his people to one nation by implying that “all dread it, all sought to advert it. Pronouns such as “we”and “us” link together a nation lost in strife. At the same time, Lincoln also establishes his authority as he speaks by demonstrating his knowledge of the matter. He identifies the problem and then speaks of his hope for the future though he has “no prediction in regard to it is ventured."
By intentionally establishing one common purpose among all people, North or South, he brings unity to a nation that is in desperate need for nationalism. Lincoln does not act superior to his people, instead he states that progress of arms is “... well known to the public as (myself).” He then continues to say, “…I trust, reasonably satisfactory to all.” Although Lincoln's authority is inevitable, he is able to relate to his people on a more personal level acknowledging that he is no different than them.
Lincoln displays logic to bring the civil war into realistic perspective of society. An example of this is seen when he states that, “One-eighth of the whole population were colored slaves.” By implementing this, Lincoln lays a foundation which the war was based on, ultimately leading to progressing forward as a nation. Lincoln emphasizes that “neither party”wanted the war to begin, knew how long it would last, and neither is willing to compromise. Then he logically reiterates that both parties read the same bible and pray to the same God. Lincoln logically asserts that asking “God's assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men's faces.... The prayers of both could not be answered." This reasoning was fundamental to Lincolns message.
Lincolns affiliation to the Lord is undeniable. Considering that the majority of people at his time were Christ followers, Lincoln appeals strongly to the moral standards and beliefs of his people. Lincoln portrays a great deal of trust in the Lord and clearly demonstrates God's sovereignty among all people. He believes that the “almighty has his own purposes” and that the judgment of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.” He emphasizes that with the power and strength of God, it will become possible to “bind up the nation's wounds.” This personification of the nation shows the need for peace. Some of the characteristics of Lincolns address can be interpreted as an allusion to the bible. The objectives of Lincolns speech is much like those of the biblical character, Salomon who holds high expectations for his people and evaluates their progress.
Lincoln is effective in addressing his purpose to bring a nation together because of his sincere authority, reasoning, and his connection to his people. He gives this speech in a crucial point in the war, in hopes that peace can result from it. By addressing both the North and South as won his motivation for unity is accomplished.

Kundera Essay

Milan Kundera asserts a clear distinction in Testaments Betrayed; private and public life are “two essentially different worlds.” This statement is undeniably accurate. Milan then continues to express that people or groups who intentionally reveal someone's private life are “criminals.” These people who expose the private lives of others, in my opinion, are more than “curtain rippers,” they are hypocrites.
The aspects of life that society and culture have tabooed, one will store in their private life. This is, of course, with the intention to conceal these aspects from others. If this private life is revealed, there is a possibility that reputation and status may be lost from those under their power or authority.
The innate nature of the heart leads to private decisions, whereas societal and cultural expectations heavily influence public decisions. Humans are more cautious about public decisions because their reputation is at stake. Private decisions, on the other hand, can only put a reputation on the line if it is revealed.
Important figures or people of power and authority, respect and trust, stardom and fame, must be selective and aware of their private decisions in order to always maintain credibility. It is better that one matches their private life closely to their public life to eliminate any doubt of false credibility. When President Carter was asked if had ever “lusted,” he replied that he had “looked upon many women with lust.” Many people praised Carter for his honesty. Carter had exposed his private life intentionally, and because of this, many still approved of him. His private life closely matched his public life. Ghandi once said, “I like your Christ, I do not like your Christians. Your Christians are so unlike your Christ."By this he meant that many people publicly act Christian, but do not privately act Christian. He likes Christ because Jesus did both.
Many humans crave scandalous items. Magazines such as “People” make millions annually. There will always be groups revealing the private lives of those who are held to high standards in society. These groups who expose the lives of others, are never themselves exposed. If “People” magazine revealed the private lives of “curtain rippers,” there would also be scandals and flaws in their lives. When the “curtain rippers” expose the private life of Tiger Woods, all of the blame, fault, and penalty is on his. No one thinks twice about the selfish people who intend to ruin his fame and career. A well known verse from the Bible, Matthew 7:5, applies to these “curtain rippers,” “You hypocrite! First get rid of the log in your own eye; and then you will see well enough to deal with the speck in your friend's eye.” (NIV)
Public and private life are two different worlds, but ideally should be a reflection of each other to create an accurate portrayal of one's true self. In a culture filled with gossip and cultural, curtains may be ripped down, and private lives may be revealed. Even though the blame will fall on the person left cold and exposed, the true criminal will still be holding the curtain.

Huck Finn Essay

Mark Twain incorporates humor in Huck's moral and emotional response to his actions regarding helping Jim escape. Instead of feeling heroic, triumphant, and accomplished, Huck felt “bad and low” because he knew he “had done wrong.” Huck sincerely feels guilt for his actions that could be considered courageous and admirable. Twain expresses his intent to display on the ironic nature of this situation, that becomes humorous to read.
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was first published in 1884. During this time slavery was common and blacks were considered inhuman. In some aspects, Twain reveals the culture and societal expectations of black people at this time. Huck Finn has learned these characteristics throughout his lifetime, and thinks he may have “done right and give Jim up.” However, this is not Twain's central claim. He wants to show that Huck did the right thing by helping Jim escape from runaway-slave catchers.
It is humorous that Huck experiences immense guilt and tells himself if he had give Jim up “would you feel better than what you do now?” The serious nature that Huck addresses his moral dilemma is nothing short of comical. He analyzes his moral judgment in such a way that could be considered irrational. He notes that “it's troublesome to do right” and “ain't no trouble to do wrong.” This whimsical outlook on life is optimistic is a self and was intended to bring a smile to the readers face. Of course, the easy was isn't always the best way, but Huck concludes that it is the better choice. He says that “both wages (are) just the same.” By making trouble before one does right, he would support that you might as well make trouble after doing something wrong, because it is ultimately the same concept.
Huck's final verdict that that he should all together “bother no more about it” and make decisions based on what is “handiest at the time.” Twain establishes Huck's humorous character throughout the passage by revealing his inner-most thoughts in regard to the “bad” thing he has done. This is most humorous because Huck makes an elaborate description of his guilt and moral understanding only to come to a reasoning that only brings him to the beginning of a continual loop, leaving the reader smiling and saying “Oh, Huck Finn.”

Birds: Analytical Essay

A flock of birds is transformed in the elaborate work of John Audubon and Annie Dillard by the way they both portray their ideas through their literary devices and diction. Audubon has fairly factual approach. In contrast, Annie Dillard has a very abstract portrayal. This is apparent when specifically observing the style influenced by several factors of both individuals.
John Audubon is immensely precise in his description of the birds in flight he encounters. From a mathematical or scientific perspective, Audubon seems to see patterns and numbers in the surroundings he observes. He sees the birds in “countless multitudes,” and remarks on their “aerial evolutions.” He characterizes the birds by their “compact mass,” and their “inconceivable velocity” as they are “mounted perpendicularly.” This shows in intricacy of the birds, and the accuracy of their flight.
Observations made by Audubon are technical but illustrate a specific setting. A journalistic approach of detail and organized thought is clearly conveyed in the writing of John Audubon. He addresses information with all of the essential components. Audubon states the “multitudes” of birds, the path of their flight from “northeast to south-west” and even the “noon-time of day” in which he observed.
Annie Dillard is elaborate in her delineation of the birds she describes. Dillard's role of a female is clearly woven throughout her piece. She incorporates specific household tasks into her writing to represent the birds actions. There are “flock sifting into flock” of birds over her head like the sound of “beaten air” or “a million shook rugs.” Dillard conveys a knowledge of weaving by establishing an alliance of the characteristics of the birds flight. The birds, “unravel” like a “loosened skein,” and “bobbed and knitted” through the air. She remarks of their passage through the “weft of limbs.” All of the terminology she utilizes is found in weaving or sewing.
Dillard reveals an intimate connection by asking the rhetorical question could “tiny birds be sifting through the gaps between my cells?” This question establishes another dimension of depth relying on awe and wonder found in the author's voice. Abstract and artistic are clearly shown in this statement. Dillard has a extraordinary imagination.
Contrasting views are present in the pieces by Audubon and Dillard. However, they share a common foundation of the interest taken upon the flight of birds. The interpretations they both present differ in several aspects as they describe their observation. Both Dillard and Audubon make parallel relationships to their interests. Audubon creates a simile in which the birds became like an equation. The birds darted forward in”angular lines” and “mounted perpendicularly” to resemble a “column.” Dillard similarly produces a correspondence between weaving and the flight of birds. She describes how “each individual bird bobbed and knitted up and down.”
Both authors also remark specifically about the numbers in which the birds flew. Audubon observes the pigeons in “greater numbers than I thought I had ever seen them before.” Dillard expresses the multitudes of birds flying “directly over my head for half and hour.” Audubon and Dillard both share the same awe and exuberance toward birds.
By comparing the authors, a prevalent theme of awe and wonder of birds is seen in both Audubon and Dillard. By contrasting the two, a array of anomaly is apparent. Varying approaches were seen between Audubon and Dillard, but both create a intricate display of birds in flight.

Sunday, October 17, 2010

The Color of Hunger (Roughie)

Hunger is black. It is white. It is brown. Hunger is all visible spectrum. Then why is the color invisible? The colors of hunger are transparent. They are there, but they are seen through and ignored. Hunger is the colors of the African flag. The Indian flag. The flags of all the world. Hunger is seen in the white of the American flag. It is seen in the green of the mountains. Hunger is in the sandy beige of the desert. Hunger in seen in the blue of the ocean. It is seen in the smog of the city. Where is the color of love? The color of compassion?

As I write this, i have food in my stomach. I thank the lord for thy bread to eat. The earth produces food for all to eat. Can it not be chared? Our great mother earth is bountiful. People suffering from salvation and malnutrition may not know the food pyramid and how many ounces of each food group to eat, but they know gnats can be made into an edible paste to survive. here we have to choice to be vegetarian. Other places dont even have a choice of that.

Red is the color of blood shed in the scarcity of food. Blue is the color of the sea of tears shed. Brown is the color of dirt in the grave. Death is the color of hunger. What is the color of life?

Sula Rhetorical Analysis

Rhetorical Analysis: Introduction Paragraph of Sula

In the opening paragraph of Sula, Tori Morrison describes an old neighborhood that will now be replaced with a Golf Course. She reminiscences about what the the neighborhood used to be and includes numerous details to establish how personal the neighborhood really was. This collaboration of memories makes the “Bottom” seem significant to her. She suggests that the neighborhood is now unimportant and forgotten to those who did not have ties to it when she says, ...there once was a neighborhood.”
Morrison emphasizes the irony of the situation in several instances. The name of the neighborhood on the hilltop is called the bottom. This signifies the rank of society. She also notes that, “Generous funds have been allotted to level the stripped and faded buildings...” This is ironic because if funds would have been provided to the “bottom” before, the neighborhood could have improved instead of becoming extinct. She refers to a beauty salon in the neighborhood as, “Irene's Palace of Cosmetology.” This most likely, however, was quite the opposite.
Tori Morrison intends for the diction to be direct and impacting. Words such as “tore” and “pry” show the inconsideration of the people who are demolishing the town. Words such as “nightshade” and “blackberry patches” signify the prejudice of the people who want to make room for the golf course. She conveys that there is an insignificance of these people to others.
Pathos is prevalent throughout the paragraph. Morrison describes African Americans being torn from their “roots,” their homes, for the selfish ambition of the Medallion City Gold Course. While describing the business and people of the neighborhood she adds a personal element to the paragraph, ultimately appealing to emotions. She creates vivid images that make connections to the place the “bottom” used to be.
Morrison aims to create a setting in the opening paragraph of Sula. She marks a place that used to be. The “bottom” was a neighborhood, with business and people, but now its only to be torn down to be built into something better. It is evident that although the bottom was not prestigious, it was significant to the people who lived there.

Lewe's Essay

M.E. Lewes Essay

In M.E. Lewes response to a letter from an American woman, Lewes emphasizes the importance of writing by expressing the significance of humble ambition. She demonstrates this through establishing credibility, reasoning, and direct connection to the heart of Melusina Pierce.
Lewes reacts to Pierce's as “touching and tender.” There is a direct connection between the two women because of their passion to write. Lewes has encountered and experienced many of the struggles Pierce has been through as a writer. Credibility is actually accomplished when Lewes reveals that she has entered “into those young struggles of yours” and into “the longing you (Pierce) feel.” By relating to Pierce in “all that I have gone thorough myself,” she reflects her position as a writer. Lewes implies the frustrations in the development of a writer.
Lewes' ethics and personality also embody credibility by admitting she was “too proud and ambitious to write.” She does not act superior to Pierce because she is a well-known author, but instead humbles herself to define an innate relationship with Pierce. She acknowledges Pierce as an author that shares similar characteristics to her.
Reasoning is also incorporated through the letter, providing evidence that “one's ignorance and incompleteness” can create a conflict. Lewes also remarks that a writer who has exhausted him or herself is “dreary.” However, Lewes uses these sentences to suppress Pierce's fears that she is “past her prime.” Lewes address that every writer has specific talents and gifts that are apparent in their writing. Lewes goes on to share some of her own story. This shows her own development as a writer to set an example for Pierce.
The English novelist addresses the rhetorical question of “Does this seem melancholy?” to confirm her opinion about the ways in which an author can be hindered. Lewes' answer to her question is “less melancholy than any sort of flattery.” This creates importance of avoiding conflicts that can burden writing. She wants Pierce to know that it is crucial to stick to one vision and goal.
By relating to the heart of Pierce, Lewe's draws on her emotions. She creates a connection between both of them instantly. Immediately she does this by complementing her writing ability and the she goes on to establish a deeper element to her letter implying a close connection. Lewe's explains that pierce is “held fast by woman necessities” of “neatness and household perfection.” She creates a definite persona which functions as a relational establishment. As she closes she remarks on her husband how that being married to good. This comment emphasizes how personal she intended the letter to be.
There are several apparent strategies in the piece that Lewes writes to Pierce that enhances her message. By appealing to Pierce through reasoning, connection, and credibly there is an underlying theme of encouragement in the development of a writer. By establishing this encouragement, humble ambition of a writer is generated.

Kennan Essay

Kennan Essay

In George F. Kennan's “Training for Statesmanship,” he addresses the element of power. His most compelling observation concerning this issue is that power “sometimes exists in irregular forces.” He then continues to state that theses forces are found “in underworld and criminal gangs.” This observation is imperative because throughout history is has become apparent that these self-appointed forces gain power through terror.
This observation holds true specifically in the United States. In the US there are 926 “hate groups.” Most of these groups are extremists that use violence to hold authority and power. Radicals exists from Neo-Nazis, Anti-Gay, KKK, White Nationalists, and cults. They use violence and possess control and command over others.
Neo-Nazi's intend to revive political and social aspects of Nazism. Most support discrimination and ethnic cleansing. Discrimination is the fuel of irregular forces of power. They brainwash others to believe that the honorable thing to do is keep one pure race. This is a direct example of a vigilante group. In their eyes, what they are doing is beneficial, although it is clearly destructive to society. Anti-Gay groups focus on tormenting those who are in homosexual relationships. Although society is entitled to individual opinions, the problem arises in those who use fear and terror to prove their point. It seems a little coincidental that many victims of murder are homosexual.
Similarly the KKK and White Nationalists uses terror, violence, and lynching to oppress African Americans, Jews, and other minorities that may be a “threat” to the interests of white Americans. This group has power because of its immense secrecy. In 1963, the “16th Street Baptist Church Bombing” killed four girls. The case was determined to be a racially motivated attack by the KKK in 2000. Groups such as these can get away with such violent attacks because of the authority they possess.
There is a defining line between a religion and a cult. A religion is a system of beliefs and practices that are based upon a power that controls human destiny, while a cult is unorthodox and extremist. Followers are brainwashed and manipulated to believe in demented practices. Most groups use fear to obtain their followers. Cults are so influential that several mass suicides have occurred over the years. From 1994 to 1997, seventy-four of the Order of the Sun's followers committed suicide leaving letters behind. The believed their deaths would be an escape from the “hypocrisies and oppression” of this world.
Power can be used beneficially, but when it is used in a corrupt manner, peace is unattainable. Kennan's observation holds true in the US among all of the radical group. Those who have extremist views towards a race, ethnicity, religion, or social class sometimes, unfortunately, express these views using power and authority as a direct result of fear. They will not cease to exist either. It will always be a power struggle.

Interpretive Response: Singer Essay

Interpretive Response:

In the “Singer Solution to World Poverty,” Singer assumes and implies several attitudes toward the issue of donation. In his essay he describes two hypothetical situations. The first hypothetical situation is a woman, Dora, who is given the choice to make a thousand dollars. She persuades a homeless boy to go with her where he will be adopted by foreigners. After she does this she buys a new TV. When she finds out that the boy was too old for adoption and will be killed, Dora decides to take the boy back. The second hypothetical situation that Singer illustrates is a man, Bob, who owns a Bugatti, which he intensely enjoys. One day he parks his Bugatti by a railroad track. Then he sees a runaway train and a child who will get hit. He had a choice to flip a switch which would stop the train, but he decides to save his car instead. Singer manipulates these two situations to invoke a response from the reader. This is effective, as I felt very negative toward Bob. Singer seems to favor Dora because she chose to save the child. He assumes his audience feels similarly if she did not save the child as he notes, “She would then have become, in the eyes of the audience, a monster." Singer implies that Dora's actions are more acceptable than Bob's as he says, "Bob's conduct, most of us will immediately respond, was gravely wrong."
Throughout the rest of his essay he assumes that the American public is also like Bob in which they have the ability and opportunity to save the lives of children, but choose not to. He supports this argument by adding, “So, if we condemn Bob for not saving the child, how can we not condemn all of the people with surplus wealth who do not donate a dollar?” This persuades me to want to give to organizations which will help the needy. Singer at this point convicts me of being selfish. However, at the end of Singer's essay, he demands his readers that, “the formula is simple: whatever money you're spending on luxuries, not necessities, should be given away." At this point, my attitude toward the essay changes. Singer assumes, incorrectly, that everyone has extra money to spend. This demand is unreasonable because he asks people to give away ALL their money that they rightfully earned. In the beginning of his article he discussed giving $200 to save a child, a reasonable implication. In my opinion, Singer takes his essay too far, and therefore loses his intention to persuade.